GATE: Graduate Aptitude test in Engineering.

GATE is a All-India level Examination, which is conducted for Master of Engineering (ME), Masters in Technology (MTech) and direct PhD admissions to Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), National Institutes of Technology (NITs), Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIITs) and other institutes/universities across India, conducted by IISC & 7 IITs (Madras, Delhi, Bombay, Kharagpur, Kanpur, Guwahati & Roorkee).

GATE 2023 is conducted by the IIT Kanpur.

Why Gate?

  • Central govt /PSU jobs in reputed organisations with high package.
  • MTech/PHD admissions in IIT/NITs and other universities.Other central & state govt jobs.
  • Application of fellowship offered by DRDO, ISRO, BARC, CSIR labs & CSIR sponsored projects.
  • Research jobs.
  • Higher studies in foreignuniversities. (Germany & Singapore)
  • Prime minister research fellowship (PMRF)(5 years integrated Ph.D.) offered by central govt with highly paid tax-free stipend.
  • Management courses in NITIE, Mumbai. (Project Management, Manufacturing Management & Industrial management).


Selection procedure for PSUs

DAAD Scholarship(Germany):

Scholarship provided for pursing Master’s Thesis at Germany universities for one year.


  • Pursuing M.Tech in IIT and should be in second year or 3rd semester of course work
  • Should have CGPA of min 7.5
PGCIL80.18 (M)71.3269.8869.03
NBCC (2018)94.98  (M)7574.2581.46
HPCL (2018)72.78 (M)71.3059.5060.25
NHAI88.33 (M)84.3379.6774.33
NHPC86 (M)81.9876.4181.32
IOCL-202077.78 (M)76.4166.3367.31
AAI-201973.02 (M)70.5865.3560.47

Cutoff for PSUs

                                                                  (Source: ACE engg. academy)

NIRF Ranking of IITS & NITs (In Engineering discipline -2021):

1IIT Madras1NIT Tiruchinapalli9
2IIT Delhi2NIT Suratkal10
3IIT Bombay3NIT Rourkela20
4IIT Kanpur4NIT Warangal23
5IIT Kharagpur5NIT Calicut25
6IIT Rookee6NIT Durgapur29
7IIT Guwahati7VNIT Nagpur30
8IIT Hyderabad8MNIT Jaipur37
9IIT Indore13NIT Prayagraj42
10IIT Varanasi14NIT Kurukshetra44

          (source: National Institutional Ranking GOI frame work, Ministry of education)

Previous year gate cut-off for IITs

IISC Bangalore722-950461-833360-770
IIT  Madras674-862628-852463-630439-552
IIT  Delhi600-820550-780425-635315-500
IIT  BOMBAY500-600450-540333-400333-400
IIT  Kanpur561-700535-640380-520277-365
IIT  Kharagpur751-847696-759574-659435-547
IIT  Roorkee655-775543-764487-685539-648
IIT Guwahati670-685578-624486-518382-435

                                                                  (Source: ACE engg. academy)

Previous year gate cut-off for NITs

NIT Tiruchirappalli666-823630-761467-694406-538
NIT Suratkal634-817597-724410-643311-601
NIT Rourkela537-719499-645391-579380-427
NIT Warangal612-792562-728440-619264-497
NIT Nagpur531-843437-673256-496270-369

                                                                  (Source: ACE engg. academy)

M.Tech Specialization

  • Structural Engineering.
  • Transportation Engineering.
  • Geotechnical Engineering.
  • Environmental Engineering.
  • Hydraulics & Water Resources Engineering.
  • Construction Engineering & Management.
  • Structural Dynamics.
  • Infrastructure Engineering & Technology.
  • Offshore Engineering.
  • Building technology & Construction Technology.
  • Remote sensing


  • 3rd years, final years & pass out students can apply.
  • No age limit.
  • No attempt limit.
  • No criteria of min percentage in B.Tech.
  • Also, eligible if you have backlogs.

Exam pattern:

Total 65 questions for 100 marks

General aptitude (GA)15%
Engineering Mathematics13%
Core Subjects72%

Tentative Syllabus:

GA General Aptitude

Verbal Aptitude: Basic English grammar, Basic vocabulary

Quantitative Aptitude: Data interpretation, Numerical computation and estimation

Analytical Aptitude: Logic: deduction and induction, Analogy, Numerical relations and reasoning

Spatial Aptitude: Transformation of shapes: translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, Paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions

Engineering Mathematics:

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra; Systems of linear equations; Eigen values and Eigen vectors.

Calculus: Functions of single variable; Limit, continuity and differentiability; Mean value theorems, local maxima and minima; Taylor series; Evaluation of definite and indefinite integrals, application of definite integral to obtain area and volume; Partial derivatives; Total derivative; Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities; Directional derivatives; Line, Surface and Volume integrals.

Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE): First order (linear and non-linear) equations; higher order linear equations with constant coefficients; Euler-Cauchy equations; initial and boundary value problems.

Partial Differential Equation (PDE): Fourier series; separation of variables; solutions of one-dimensional diffusion equation; first and second order one-dimensional wave equation and two-dimensional Laplace equation.

Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems; Conditional probability; Descriptive statistics – Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random Variables – Discrete and Continuous, Poisson and Normal Distribution; Linear regression.

Numerical Methods: Error analysis. Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; Newton’s and Lagrange polynomials; numerical differentiation; Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; Single and multi-step methods for first order differential equations.

Civil Engineering:

Structural Engineering

Engineering Mechanics: System of forces, free-body diagrams, equilibrium equations; Internal forces in structures; Frictions and its applications; Centre of mass; Free Vibrations of undamped SDOF system.

Solid Mechanics: Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams; Simple stress and strain relationships; Simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses, shear centre; Uniform torsion, Transformation of stress; buckling of column, combined and direct bending stresses.

Structural Analysis: Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods; Method of superposition; Analysis of trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames; Displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods; Influence lines; Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis.

Construction Materials and Management: Construction Materials: Structural Steel – Composition, material properties and behaviour; Concrete – Constituents, mix design, short-term and long-term properties. Construction Management: Types of construction projects; Project planning and network analysis – PERT and CPM; Cost estimation.

Concrete Structures: Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of beams, slabs, columns; Bond and development length; Prestressed concrete beams.

Steel Structures: Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of tension and compression members, beams and beam- columns, column bases; Connections – simple and eccentric, beam-column connections, plate girders and trusses; Concept of plastic analysis beams and frames.

 Geotechnical Engineering

Soil Mechanics: Three-phase system and phase relationships, index properties; Unified and Indian standard soil classification system; Permeability – one dimensional flow, Seepage through soils – two – dimensional flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping, capillarity, seepage force; Principle of effective stress and quicksand condition; Compaction of soils; One- dimensional consolidation, time rate of consolidation; Shear Strength, Mohr’s circle, effective and total shear strength parameters, Stress-Strain characteristics of clays and sand; Stress paths.

Foundation Engineering: Sub-surface investigations – Drilling bore holes, sampling, plate load test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests; Earth pressure theories – Rankine and Coulomb; Stability of slopes – Finite and infinite slopes, Bishop’s method; Stress distribution in soils – Boussinesq’s theory; Pressure bulbs, Shallow foundations – Terzaghi’s and Meyerhoff’s bearing capacity theories, effect of water table; Combined footing and raft foundation; Contact pressure; Settlement analysis in sands and clays; Deep foundations – dynamic and static formulae, Axial load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, pile under lateral loading, pile group efficiency, negative skin friction.

Water Resources Engineering:

Fluid Mechanics: Properties of fluids, fluid statics; Continuity, momentum and energy equations and their applications; Potential flow, Laminar and turbulent flow; Flow in pipes, pipe networks; Concept of boundary layer and its growth; Concept of lift and drag.

Hydraulics: Forces on immersed bodies; Flow measurement in channels and pipes; Dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude; Channel Hydraulics – Energy-depth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, hydraulic jump, uniform flow, gradually varied flow and water surface profiles.

Hydrology: Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, evapo-transpiration, watershed, infiltration, unit hydrographs, hydrograph analysis, reservoir capacity, flood estimation and routing, surface run-off models, ground water hydrology – steady state well hydraulics and aquifers; Application of Darcy’s Law.

Irrigation: Types of irrigation systems and methods; Crop water requirements – Duty, delta, evapo-transpiration; Gravity Dams and Spillways; Lined and unlined canals, Design of weirs on permeable foundation; cross drainage structures.

Environmental Engineering

Water and Waste Water Quality and Treatment: Basics of water quality standards – Physical, chemical and biological parameters; Water quality index; Unit processes and operations; Water requirement; Water distribution system; Drinking water treatment. Sewerage system design, quantity of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment. Effluent discharge standards; Sludge disposal; Reuse of treated sewage for different applications.

Air Pollution: Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution control, air quality standards, Air quality Index and limits.

Municipal Solid Wastes: Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal).

Transportation Engineering

Transportation Infrastructure: Geometric design of highways – cross-sectional elements, sight  distances, horizontal and vertical alignments. Geometric design of railway Track – Speed and Cant. Concept of airport runway length, calculations and corrections; taxiway and exit taxiway design.

Highway Pavements: Highway materials – desirable properties and tests; Desirable properties of bituminous paving mixes; Design factors for flexible and rigid pavements; Design of flexible and rigid pavement using IRC codes

Traffic Engineering: Traffic studies on flow and speed, peak hour factor, accident study, statistical analysis of traffic data; Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow, fundamental relationships; Traffic signs; Signal design by Webster’s method; Types of intersections; Highway capacity.

Geomatics Engineering

Surveying: Principles of surveying; Errors and their adjustment; Maps – scale, coordinate system; Distance and angle measurement – Levelling and trigonometric levelling; Traversing and triangulation survey; Total station; Horizontal and vertical curves.

Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing: Scale, flying height; Basics of remote sensing and GIS.

Type of QuestionsAttempt1 Mark Questions2 Mark Questions
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)objective in nature, and each will have choice of four answers, out of which ONLY ONE choice is correct.1-0.332-0.66
Multiple Select Questions (MSQ)objective in nature, and each will have choice of four answers, out of which ONE or MORE than ONE choice(s) is / are correct1020
Numerical Answer Type (NAT)the answer is a signed real number, which needs to be entered by the candidate using the virtual numeric keypad on the monitor1020



SubjectGATE 2020GATE 2019GATE 2018GATE 2017GATE 2016GATE 2015
Engineering Mathematics11.510.511.512.51513
Irrigation and Hydrology5.55.555.545
Fluid Mechanics7.598.57.575
Environmental Engineering1191011108
Structural Analysis64.51.56.534.5
Geotechnical Engineering14.5161412.51515
Transportation Engineering119.59.58.567
Geomatics Engineering14.5644.556
R. C. C.557557
Steel Structures2.554.5235.5
Construction Materials and Management0.510.535New subjects
Engineering Mechanics10.5313.5
Solid Mechanics43.565.53.57
Gentle Aptitude151515151515

                                                    (Source: textbook.com)

Cut-off marks for Civil:


Preparation Strategy:

1st& 2nd years

  • NPTEL video lectures.
  • General Aptitude Practice.
  • Own Short notes.
  • Formulae Practice.
  • Previous years papers practice.

3rd& final years

  • Short notes for each subject.
  • Periodic revision.
  • Formulae practice.
  • Previous years papers practice.
  • Mock tests.
  • Concentrate on weak subjects


  • NPTEL Video lectures.
  • Text books.
  • Class running notes.
  • Made easy/ Ace academy materials & online test series.
  • Previous year papers.


  • Candidates can appear in 2 subjects. (Civil Engineering + second paper)
Allowed Second papers  

Allowed Second Papers along with Primary Papers:

Exam codeAbbreviation
CECivil Engineering
AEAerospace Engineering
ARArchitecture and planning
ESEnvironmental science and  Engineering
GEGeomatics Engineering
NMNaval architecture and marine Engineering

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